A sympathomimetic drug, powerful stimulant of the central nervous system, whose action and uses are similar to dextroamphetamine. It has been used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but above all it is considered an illegal drug (Chomchai, 2016; Bartu, 2009). It is partially metabolized to amphetamine and is highly addictive.
It is excreted in breast milk (Chomchai, 2016; Bartu, 2009), with a slower elimination than in plasma, as the half-life in milk is 40 hours, disappearing completely from the milk 1 day before the values in urine are negative (Chomchai, 2016).
In order to avoid exposure to the infant, it is estimated that 48 hours (Bartu, 2009) to 100 hours (Chomchai, 2016) should pass after the last use of methamphetamine before breastfeeding or, more safely, when the detection in the mother's urine is negative (Chomchai, 2016).
A breastfeeding mother who inhaled methamphetamine was accused of the cot death of her 2-month-old baby, although there has been some question as to whether methamphetamine in milk was the cause (Green, 1996; Ariagno, 1995).
There is little information on the impact of amphetamine abuse on infant development and health (Oei, 2012), but it is known that they are more exposed to social problems, domestic violence, and lower rates of breastfeeding (Shah, 2012, Oei, 2010).
Amphetamines do not cause significant decreases in prolactin levels (DeLeo, 1983). Methamphetamine withdrawal caused increased prolactin secretion (Zorick, 2011).
Its use as an illegal drug is totally discouraged (Oei, 2012).
See below the information of these related products:
Very Low Risk
Compatible. Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.
Moderately safe. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.
Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully. Use a safer alternative. Read the Comment.
Very High Risk
Not recommended. Cessation of breastfeeding or alternative.
- Crystal meth
- d-Deoxyephedrine Hydrochloride
- d-Desoxyephedrine Hydrochloride
- Methamphetamine Hydrochloride
- Methylamphetamine Hydrochloride
- Метамфетамина Гидрохлорид (Cyrillic)
- メタンフェタミン塩酸塩 (Japanese)
- Chlorhydrate de Métamfétamine (French)
- C10H15N,HC (Molecular formula)
- (+)-N,α-Dimethylphenethylamine hydrochloride (Chemical name)
- Chomchai C, Chomchai S, Kitsommart R. Transfer of Methamphetamine (MA) into Breast Milk and Urine of Postpartum Women who Smoked MA Tablets during Pregnancy: Implications for Initiation of Breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2016Abstract
- Oei JL, Kingsbury A, Dhawan A, Burns L, Feller JM, Clews S, Falconer J, Abdel-Latif ME. Amphetamines, the pregnant woman and her children: a review. J Perinatol. 2012Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
- Shah R, Diaz SD, Arria A, LaGasse LL, Derauf C, Newman E, Smith LM, Huestis MA, Haning W, Strauss A, Della Grotta S, Dansereau LM, Roberts MB, Neal C, Lester BM. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure and short-term maternal and infant medical outcomes. Am J Perinatol. 2012Abstract
- Zorick T, Mandelkern MA, Lee B, Wong ML, Miotto K, Shabazian J, London ED. Elevated plasma prolactin in abstinent methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011Abstract
- Oei J, Abdel-Latif ME, Clark R, Craig F, Lui K. Short-term outcomes of mothers and infants exposed to antenatal amphetamines. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010Abstract
- Bartu A, Dusci LJ, Ilett KF. Transfer of methylamphetamine and amphetamine into breast milk following recreational use of methylamphetamine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
- Green LS. People v Henderson: the prosecution responds. JAMA. 1996Abstract
- Ariagno R, Karch SB, Middleberg R, Stephens BG, Valdès-Dapena M. Methamphetamine ingestion by a breast-feeding mother and her infant's death: People v Henderson. JAMA. 1995Abstract
- DeLeo V, Cella SG, Camanni F, Genazzani AR, Müller EE. Prolactin lowering effect of amphetamine in normoprolactinemic subjects and in physiological and pathological hyperprolactinemia. Horm Metab Res. 1983Abstract