Heavy metal that in its trivalent oxidative states (3+) has a great nutritional value since it acts as a trace element (trace element) that enhances the action of insulin and is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Meat, seafood, brewer's yeast, whole grains and nuts (especially walnuts), among others, are very rich in chromium. The recommended intake in nursing mothers is 45 micrograms daily (Ares Segura 2015).
The average concentration of chromium in breast milk is 1 nanogram / mL, ranging between 0.2 and 7 ng / mL and is independent of plasma levels and maternal daily intake (Kumpulainen 1980, Anderson 1993, Mohamedshah 1998).
With a varied and balanced diet not mineral supplements are needed. Excessive intake of chromium can cause skin problems in infants (Adachi 2007).
No increased concentrations of chromium in milk or problems in breastfed by mothers with hip containing chromium in its composition (Nelis 2013, Oppermann 2015)
Not to be confused with states hexavalent (6+) industrial and irritating, toxic and carcinogenic effects (see tab chromic acid or chromium trioxide).
See below the information of this related product:
- Chromium Trioxide (High Risk probable)
Very Low Risk
Compatible. Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.
Moderately safe. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.
Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully. Use a safer alternative. Read the Comment.
Very High Risk
Not recommended. Cessation of breastfeeding or alternative.
- Chromium Trichloride
- Chromium Tripicolinate
- Χρώμιο τριχλωριούχο (Greek)
- Пиколинат Хрома (Cyrillic)
- Трёххлористый Хром; Хлористый Хром (Cyrillic)
- Хром (Cyrillic)
- 塩素クロム (Japanese)
- C18H12N3O6Cr (Molecular formula)
- Cr (Molecular formula)
- CrCl3,6H2O (Molecular formula)
Drug trade names
- Ares Segura S, Arena Ansótegui J, Díaz-Gómez NM; en representación del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales? [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?] An Pediatr (Barc). 2015Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
- Oppermann M, Borisch C, Schaefer C. Hip arthroplasty with high chromium and cobalt blood levels--Case report of a patient followed during pregnancy and lactation period. Reprod Toxicol. 2015Abstract
- Nelis R, de Waal Malefijt J, Gosens T. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis. J Arthroplasty. 2013Abstract
- Sun Z, Yue B, Yang Z, Li X, Wu Y, Yin S. [Determination of 24 minerals in human milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with microwave digestion]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2013Abstract
- ATSDR. Cromo. Resumen de Salud Pública. 2012 Full text (in our servers)
- ATSDR. Chromium. Public Health Statement. 2012 Full text (in our servers)
- Abdulrazzaq YM, Osman N, Nagelkerke N, Kosanovic M, Adem A. Trace element composition of plasma and breast milk of well-nourished women. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2008Abstract
- Yoshida M, Takada A, Hirose J, Endô M, Fukuwatari T, Shibata K. Molybdenum and chromium concentrations in breast milk from Japanese women. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008Abstract
- Adachi A, Horikawa T. [Pompholyx of the infant possibly induced by systemic metal allergy to chromium in mother's milk]. Arerugi. 2007Abstract
- Wappelhorst O, Kühn I, Heidenreich H, Markert B. Transfer of selected elements from food into human milk. Nutrition. 2002Abstract
- Mohamedshah FY, Moser-Veillon PB, Yamini S, Douglass LW, Anderson RA, Veillon C. Distribution of a stable isotope of chromium (53Cr) in serum, urine, and breast milk in lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998Abstract
- Anderson RA, Bryden NA, Patterson KY, Veillon C, Andon MB, Moser-Veillon PB. Breast milk chromium and its association with chromium intake, chromium excretion, and serum chromium. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993Abstract
- Kumpulainen JT. Chromium content of foods and diets. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992Abstract
- Anderson RA. Essentiality of chromium in humans. Sci Total Environ. 1989Abstract
- Casey CE, Hambidge KM, Neville MC. Studies in human lactation: zinc, copper, manganese and chromium in human milk in the first month of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985Abstract
- Casey CE, Hambidge KM. Chromium in human milk from American mothers. Br J Nutr. 1984Abstract
- Kumpulainen J, Vuori E, Mäkinen S, Kara R. Dietary chromium intake of lactating Finnish mothers: effect on the Cr content of their breast milk. Br J Nutr. 1980Abstract
- Kumpulainen J, Vuori E. Longitudinal study of chromium in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980Abstract