Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for nutrition. It is present in many foods.
Recommended daily allowance of Zn is 8 to 15 mg. (Moran Hall 2010). Millions of people worldwide are Zn-deficient.
It is used as a treatment for Wilson's disease and Acrodermatitis Enteropathica.
Zn is involved in the regulation process of lactation (Lee 2016).
Pasteurization of the milk does not affect the concentration of Zn and other trace elements (Mohd Taufek-2016).
The average concentration of Zn in breastmilk is 4 to 16 mg / L (Picciano 1976, Hannan 2005, Dórea 2012) which is independent of plasma levels and maternal daily intake (Krebs 1995, Chierici 1999, Hannan 2009).
Intestinal absorption of zinc is almost doubled during pregnancy and lactation (Fung 1997).
Zinc levels in the infant are dependent on Zinc levels in the breast milk (Dumrongwongsiri 2015)
With a varied and balanced diet, an extra intake of minerals is not needed. Excessive intake of Zinc may cause gastrointestinal problems and Pancytopenia (Irving 2003).
We do not have alternatives for Zinc Salts since it is relatively safe.
Very Low Risk
Compatible. Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.
Moderately safe. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.
Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully. Use a safer alternative. Read the Comment.
Very High Risk
Not recommended. Cessation of breastfeeding or alternative.
- Zinc Acetate
- Zinc Chloride
- Zinc citrate
- Zinc Gluconate
- Zinc Lactate
- Zinc Sulfate
- Lee S, Kelleher SL. Molecular regulation of lactation: The complex and requisite roles for zinc. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016Abstract
- Mohd-Taufek N, Cartwright D, Davies M, Hewavitharana AK, Koorts P, McConachy H, Shaw PN, Sumner R, Whitfield K. The effect of pasteurization on trace elements in donor breast milk. J Perinatol. 2016Abstract
- Gibson RS, King JC, Lowe N. A Review of Dietary Zinc Recommendations. Food Nutr Bull. 2016Abstract
- Abe SK, Balogun OO, Ota E, Takahashi K, Mori R. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and baby. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016Abstract
- Dumrongwongsiri O, Suthutvoravut U, Chatvutinun S, Phoonlabdacha P, Sangcakul A, Siripinyanond A, Thiengmanee U, Chongviriyaphan N. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015Abstract
- Ares Segura S, Arena Ansótegui J, Díaz-Gómez NM; en representación del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales? [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?] An Pediatr (Barc). 2015Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
- Severi C, Hambidge M, Krebs N, Alonso R, Atalah E. Zinc in plasma and breast milk in adolescents and adults in pregnancy and pospartum: a cohort study in Uruguay. Nutr Hosp. 2013Abstract
- Dórea JG. Zinc and copper concentrations in breastmilk. Indian Pediatr. 2012Abstract
- Izumi Y. Can mothers with Wilson's disease give her breast milk to their infant? Teikyo Med J. 2012;35:17-24. 2012 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
- Ejezie F, Nwagha U. Zinc Concentration during Pregnancy and Lactation in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2011Abstract
- Hall Moran V, Lowe N, Crossland N, Berti C, Cetin I, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Dykes F. Nutritional requirements during lactation. Towards European alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network. Matern Child Nutr. 2010Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
- Hannan MA, Faraji B, Tanguma J, Longoria N, Rodriguez RC. Maternal milk concentration of zinc, iron, selenium, and iodine and its relationship to dietary intakes. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009Abstract
- Hannan MA, Dogadkin NN, Ashur IA, Markus WM. Copper, selenium, and zinc concentrations in human milk during the first three weeks of lactation. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005Abstract
- Irving JA, Mattman A, Lockitch G, Farrell K, Wadsworth LD. Element of caution: a case of reversible cytopenias associated with excessive zinc supplementation. CMAJ. 2003Abstract
- Chierici R, Saccomandi D, Vigi V. Dietary supplements for the lactating mother: influence on the trace element content of milk. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999Abstract
- Doran L, Evers S. Energy and nutrient inadequacies in the diets of low-income women who breast-feed. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997Abstract
- Itriago A, Carrión N, Fernández A, Puig M, Dini E. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1997Abstract
- Fung EB, Ritchie LD, Woodhouse LR, Roehl R, King JC. Zinc absorption in women during pregnancy and lactation: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997Abstract
- Krebs NF, Reidinger CJ, Hartley S, Robertson AD, Hambidge KM. Zinc supplementation during lactation: effects on maternal status and milk zinc concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995Abstract
- Picciano MF, Guthrie HA. Copper, iron, and zinc contents of mature human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976Abstract